TERMS AND CONDITIONS

General Terms and Conditions

1. DEFINITIONS AND INTERPRETATION

TermsDefinitions
“Agreement” means this subscription agreement comprising the Cover Page and General Terms and Conditions;
“Mobile App”
means the Thinkware Connected Mobile App as may be downloaded from Google Play or the Apple AppStore;
“Billing Cycle”means each consecutive monthly period beginning on the day of a calendar month corresponding to the day of the Effective Date and ending on the day immediately preceding the same day in the next calendar month. For a given calendar month which does not contain a day corresponding to the day of the Effective Date, the closest preceding day of that calendar month shall be taken as corresponding to the day of the Effective Date. For the avoidance of doubt, the first Billing Cycle shall begin on the Effective Date;
“Dash Cam”means the dash cam model set out in Section 2(a)(i) of the Cover Page;
“Effective Date” means the date CARNECTED receives payment of the Subsidised Equipment Fee from Customer;
“Subsidised Equipment Fee”means the up-front non-refundable sum set out in Section 3(a) of the Cover Page;
“Intellectual Property Rights”shall mean trade marks, trade names, domain names, patents, copyrights, rights in or relating to the protection of trade secrets and confidential information, know-how and other intellectual property rights relating to intangible property that are analogous to any of the foregoing rights, whether or not registered, registrable, pending or perfected.
“Commitment Period”means the commitment period defined in Section 2(a)(iii) of the Cover Page;
“Payment Method”means the valid, accepted payment method set out at Section 4 of the Cover Page from Customer to CARNECTED, as may be updated from time to time, and which may include payment through Customer’s account with a third party;
"Early Termination Fee”means early termination fee set out in Section 2(a)(iv) of the Cover Page;
“Personal Data”means personal data as defined in section 2(1) of the Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (No. 26 of 2012);
“Subscription Fee”means the monthly fee applied by CARNECTED in connection with the Subscription Plan, as set out at Section 3(b) of the Cover Page. Upon expiry of the Commitment Period, the Subscription Fee may be revised from time to time by CARNECTED at its sole discretion;
“Subscription Plan”means the subscription plan defined at Section 2(a)(ii) of the Cover Page;
“Thinkware”means the manufacturer of the Dash Cam and the provider of the Thinkware App; 
“CARNECTED Marks” means trade marks, names, logos, images or designs owned by or otherwise licensed to CARNECTED which are used in connection with the Equipment and Subscription Plan from time to time;
"Term”shall have the meaning given to it in Clause 8;
“Goods and Services Tax (GST)”GST is calculated using the rate applicable for the date or period of the charge. The GST rate used for discounts and rebates is based on the GST rate applied to the original charge.


1.2 The headings in this Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the interpretation hereof.

1.3 Words importing the singular include the plural and vice versa; words importing a gender include every gender; references to "persons" include firms, partnerships, bodies corporate or unincorporated.

1.4 Any reference to a statutory provision shall include such provision and any regulations made in pursuance thereof as from time to time modified or reenacted whether before or after the date of this Agreement so far as such modification or reenactment applies or is capable of applying to any transactions entered into prior to the date of this Agreement and (so far as liability thereunder may exist or can arise) shall include also any past statutory provisions or regulations (as from time to time modified or reenacted) which such provisions or regulations have directly or indirectly replaced.


2. INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT AND ACTIVATION OF SUBSCRIPTION PLAN

2.1 Installation of the Equipment and activation of the Subscription Plan shall be carried out by CARNECTED at its designated premises as may be notified to the Customer. Customer agrees that he or she shall not take steps to install the Equipment or activate the Subscription Plan without assistance or written consent from CARNECTED and/or its employees or sales representatives.

2.2 Customer agrees that he or she shall be solely responsible for complying with any and all of Thinkware’s terms and conditions governing use of the Equipment and Thinkware App. Customer shall ensure that the operating and connectivity requirements of the Equipment and the Thinkware App as may be specified by CARNECTED or Thinkware are met.

 

3. USE OF DASH CAM AND THINKWARE APP

3.1 Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, CARNECTED shall use commercially reasonable efforts to provide the Subscription Plan to Customer during the Term.

3.2 Customer acknowledges that Customer’s use of the Dash Cam and Thinkware App is subject always to such restrictions or prohibitions as may be imposed by Thinkware or the applicable law. CARNECTED shall have the right to recall the Dash Cam provided, or suspend or discontinue the provision of the Subscription Plan in order to comply with any such restrictions, prohibitions or applicable law. 


4. NO SUSPENSION OF SUBSCRIPTION PLAN DURING COMMITMENT PERIOD 

4.1 Customer is not allowed to temporarily disconnect or suspend the Subscription Plan during the Commitment Period for any reason whatsoever and howsoever arising, including without limitation, losing possession of the Equipment. For the avoidance of doubt, in the event Customer wishes to terminate this Agreement within the Commitment Period due to any loss of Equipment, the Early Termination Fee shall apply.


5. FEES & PAYMENT 

5.1 In consideration of CARNECTED’s provision of the Equipment and Subscription Plan to Customer, Customer shall pay to CARNECTED the:

5.1.1 Subsidised Equipment Fee immediately upon entering into this Agreement; and

5.1.2 Subscription Fee for each Billing Cycle.

5.2 The Subscription Fee shall be charged to Customer’s Payment Method on the first day of each Billing Cycle. Unless the Agreement is terminated on or before the last day of the applicable Billing Cycle, Customer authorises CARNECTED to charge the Subscription Fee for the next Billing Cycle to Customer’s Payment Method.

5.3 Apart from the applicable goods and services tax (GST) which has been incorporated into any fees payable under this Agreement, any bank charges, or duties, or other government charges and levies that are payable under the applicable law in respect of the fees, payments and other monies due to CARNECTED under this Agreement (including withholding taxes) shall be borne by Customer and be over and above the Subsidised Equipment Fee, Subscription Fee and any other fees or sums payable under this Agreement.

5.4 If payment of any Subscription Fee is not made in full by the due date for any reason whatsoever:

5.4.1 CARNECTED may send Customer a reminder by post to settle the overdue amount by a specified date, for which a late payment fee of $5.35 (GST inclusive) shall apply; and

5.4.2 If the overdue amount and applicable late payment fee in accordance with Clause 5.4.1 remains outstanding past the specified date, CARNECTED may send Customer a final reminder by post with a final payment date, for which a further late payment fee of $5.35 (GST inclusive) for residential Customers or $5.35 (GST inclusive) for business Customers shall be imposed.

5.5 For the avoidance of doubt, the failure by Customer to make any payment hereunder on time shall be capable of remedy when CARNECTED receives all overdue amounts including any applicable late payment fees before or on the payment dates specified in the reminder letters pursuant to Clause 5.4.1 and 5.4.2.

5.6 Without prejudice to its other rights or remedies, CARNECTED may suspend its provision of the Subscription Plan to Customer whilst any fees or other sums properly due for payment by Customer have not been paid by its due date. Notwithstanding any suspension of the Subscription Plan, Subscription Fees shall continue to be payable in accordance with this Clause 5 until the Agreement is terminated in accordance with Clause 10. If Customer requests for reconnection of the Subscription Plan, CARNECTED may require Customer to pay a reconnection fee of $21.40 (GST inclusive), or such other amount as may be specified by CARNECTED in the Cover Page, in addition to payment of all overdue amounts and applicable late payment fees. It may take more than 24 hours after payment of all outstanding fees for CARNECTED to reconnect the Subscription Plan.

5.7 All payments due from Customer to CARNECTED under this Agreement shall be made in accordance with the Payment Method. Customer can update his or her Payment Method in accordance with such procedures as may be notified to Customer and revised from time to time at CARNECTED’s sole discretion. CARNECTED may also update Customer’s Payment Method using information provided by the respective payment service provider. Following any update, Customer authorizes CARNECTED to continue to charge the applicable Payment Method.

5.8 A replacement fee of S$32.10 (GST inclusive) will be applicable to issue a new SIM card in the event the existing SIM card is misplaced, lost, damaged or non-functional. The fee will be charged to the monthly bill. 


6. WARRANTY SERVICE FOR DASH CAM

6.1 Customer is entitled to warranty services in respect of the Dash Cam for a period of eighteen (18) months from the Effective Date in accordance with Thinkware’s applicable standard warranty terms and conditions, or such other extended warranty period as Customer may separately purchase from CARNECTED. Any faulty or defective Dash Cam within the applicable warranty period and not falling within warranty exclusions may be returned to CARNECTED for repair or replacement. Delivery charges or travel expense incurred in connection with the return of a faulty Dash Cam to CARNECTED shall be borne by Customer.

6.2 Except in accordance with Clause 6.1 above, Customer shall not be entitled to return the Dash Cam and/or Equipment to CARNECTED after the Effective Date for any reason whatsoever and howsoever arising, including without limitation, Customer’s dissatisfaction with the product, any change in circumstances or otherwise.
  

7. WARRANTIES, INDEMNITY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY  

7.1 CARNECTED MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THINKWARE APP, OR THEIR PERFORMANCE UNDER THIS AGREEMENT, ALL OF WHICH IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” CARNECTED DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THE THINKWARE APP, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY ARISING FROM STATUTE, COURSE OF DEALING, COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, OR USAGE OR TRADE. IN PARTICULAR, CARNECTED DOES NOT MAKE ANY GUARANTEE, REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED THAT THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THINKWARE APP WILL PERFORM ERROR FREE OR UNINTERRUPTED. CARNECTED’S OBLIGATION WITH RESPECT TO ANY DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT, SHALL BE LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACMENT THEREOF, AT CARNECTED’S OPTION, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE WARRANTY TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLICABLE.

7.2 CARNECTED ASSUMES NO LIABILITY REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT AND THINKWARE APP. CUSTOMER AGREES TO LOOK SOLELY TO THE MANUFACTURER(S) OF THE EQUIPMENT AND PROVIDER(S) OF THE THINKWARE APP FOR SATISFACTION REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT AND THINKWARE APP. CARNECTED SHALL PASS-THROUGH ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT THAT ARE PROVIDED BY THE EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER(S).

7.3 NOTWITHSTANDING ANYTHING TO THE CONTRARY IN THIS AGREEMENT AND TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, CARNECTED SHALL IN NO EVENT BE LIABLE TO CUSTOMER UNDER ANY THEORY INCLUDING CONTRACT AND TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT PRODUCT LIABILITY) FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL LOSSES OR DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, COSTS OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS AND SERVICES, COSTS OF REPAIR OF VEHICLE, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF DATA, LOSS OF USE OF EQUIPMENT, DOWNTIME, OR EQUIPMENT OR APPLICATION MALFUNCTION.

7.4 Customer acknowledges that it has not relied on any representation, warranty or undertaking given by the other Party in entering into this Agreement (whether made verbally, in writing or otherwise).

7.5 Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, CARNECTED has no obligation to indemnify or defend Customer against claims arising from Customer’s use of the Equipment, Subscription Plan or Thinkware App, or claims related to infringement of intellectual property rights.

7.6 Customer shall indemnify and hold harmless CARNECTED in respect of any and all losses, demands, claims, damages, costs, expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees), actions and/or liabilities suffered or incurred by CARNECTED resulting from a breach of this Agreement by Customer, including but not limited to any act, neglect, gross negligence, wilful misconduct or default of Customer, including the failure of Customer to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

7.7 CARNECTED’s liability arising out of or related to this Agreement shall in no event exceed the Subsidised Equipment Fee and Subscription Fees received from Customer in the first six (6) months of this Agreement. 


7. WARRANTIES, INDEMNITY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY  

7.1 CARNECTED MAKES NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THINKWARE APP, OR THEIR PERFORMANCE UNDER THIS AGREEMENT, ALL OF WHICH IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” CARNECTED DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THE THINKWARE APP, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY ARISING FROM STATUTE, COURSE OF DEALING, COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, OR USAGE OR TRADE. IN PARTICULAR, CARNECTED DOES NOT MAKE ANY GUARANTEE, REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED THAT THE EQUIPMENT, SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE OR THINKWARE APP WILL PERFORM ERROR FREE OR UNINTERRUPTED. CARNECTED’S OBLIGATION WITH RESPECT TO ANY DEFECTIVE EQUIPMENT, SHALL BE LIMITED TO REPAIR OR REPLACMENT THEREOF, AT CARNECTED’S OPTION, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE WARRANTY TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLICABLE.

7.2 CARNECTED ASSUMES NO LIABILITY REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT AND THINKWARE APP. CUSTOMER AGREES TO LOOK SOLELY TO THE MANUFACTURER(S) OF THE EQUIPMENT AND PROVIDER(S) OF THE THINKWARE APP FOR SATISFACTION REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT AND THINKWARE APP. CARNECTED SHALL PASS-THROUGH ANY WARRANTIES REGARDING THE EQUIPMENT THAT ARE PROVIDED BY THE EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER(S).

7.3 NOTWITHSTANDING ANYTHING TO THE CONTRARY IN THIS AGREEMENT AND TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, CARNECTED SHALL IN NO EVENT BE LIABLE TO CUSTOMER UNDER ANY THEORY INCLUDING CONTRACT AND TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT PRODUCT LIABILITY) FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL LOSSES OR DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, COSTS OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS AND SERVICES, COSTS OF REPAIR OF VEHICLE, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF DATA, LOSS OF USE OF EQUIPMENT, DOWNTIME, OR EQUIPMENT OR APPLICATION MALFUNCTION.

7.4 Customer acknowledges that it has not relied on any representation, warranty or undertaking given by the other Party in entering into this Agreement (whether made verbally, in writing or otherwise).

7.5 Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, CARNECTED has no obligation to indemnify or defend Customer against claims arising from Customer’s use of the Equipment, Subscription Plan or Thinkware App, or claims related to infringement of intellectual property rights.

7.6 Customer shall indemnify and hold harmless CARNECTED in respect of any and all losses, demands, claims, damages, costs, expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees), actions and/or liabilities suffered or incurred by CARNECTED resulting from a breach of this Agreement by Customer, including but not limited to any act, neglect, gross negligence, wilful misconduct or default of Customer, including the failure of Customer to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

7.7 CARNECTED’s liability arising out of or related to this Agreement shall in no event exceed the Subsidised Equipment Fee and Subscription Fees received from Customer in the first six (6) months of this Agreement. 


8. TERM

8.1 This Agreement will commence on the Effective Date and shall continue for the minimum duration of the Commitment Period and thereafter until terminated in accordance with Clause 9 below.


9. TERMINATION

9.1 CARNECTED may terminate this Agreement by giving Customer at least seven (7) days’ prior written notice.

9.2 CARNECTED may terminate this Agreement immediately upon giving notice in writing to the Customer in any of the following events:

9.2.1 Customer commits any breach of the terms and conditions of this Agreement which is not capable of remedy, or which is capable of remedy but Customer fails to remedy such breach within seven (7) days or such time period as stipulated by CARNECTED;

9.2.2 Customer is convicted of any offence involving fraud or dishonesty;

9.2.3 Customer is unable to pay his or her debts as they become due or is otherwise insolvent or bankrupt;

9.2.4 Customer has an administrative or other receiver, manager, trustee, liquidator, administrator, or similar officer appointed over all or any substantial part of his or her assets;

9.2.5 Customer is the subject of any events or circumstances analogous to the foregoing in any applicable jurisdiction; or

9.2.6 CARNECTED becomes aware of information that it reasonably determines as indicating that the Customer is in breach of any applicable law in using the Equipment or Subscription Plan.

9.3 Customer may terminate this Agreement by giving CARNECTED at least seven (7) days’ prior written notice PROVIDED THAT:

9.3.1 Customer has discharged all outstanding fees and charges; and

9.3.2 In the event Customer wishes to terminate this Agreement during the Commitment Period, Customer has made payment of the Early Termination Fee to CARNECTED through the Payment Method or such other payment method as may be agreed to by the Parties. 


10. TERMINATION PROCEDURE AND EFFECT OF TERMINATION

10.1 Upon CARNECTED giving written notice of termination in accordance with Clause 9.1 or 9.2, Customer shall immediately:

10.1.1 make payment of the Early Termination Fee to CARNECTED if this Agreement is or will be terminated within the Commitment Period by reason of Customer’s payment default or other lawful reasons; and

10.1.2 make payment of all other outstanding fees and charges accrued up to the date of termination.

10.2 Customer authorises CARNECTED to automatically charge the Payment Method with the amounts set out in Clauses 10.1.1 and 10.1.2 above. For the avoidance of doubt, in the event that Customer’s Payment Method is declined or no longer available to CARNECTED for payment of the Early Termination Fee or other outstanding amounts, Customer remains liable for any such unpaid amounts, which shall become immediately due and payable to CARNECTED.

10.3 On termination of this Agreement for whatever reason, Customer shall no longer be entitled to the Subscription Plan effective immediately, and CARNECTED shall cease to make the Subscription Plan available to Customer. For the avoidance of doubt, Customer shall not, for any reason whatsoever and howsoever arising, be entitled to refund or proration of any fees paid to CARNECTED prior to termination.

10.4 Termination of this Agreement pursuant to Clause 9 shall be without prejudice to any then existing rights or claims that CARNECTED may have against Customer, and shall not affect any accrued rights or liabilities of either Party nor the coming into or continuance in force of any provision hereof which is expressly or by implication intended to come into or continue in force on or after such termination or expiry. For the avoidance of doubt, Clauses 1, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, and 13 shall survive the termination or expiry of this Agreement and shall remain in full force and effect. 


11. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

11.1 Customer acknowledges that, if and to the extent that Intellectual Property Rights arise or subsist in any of the Equipment, Subscription Plan or Thinkware App, then such Intellectual Property Rights and the CARNECTED Marks and any goodwill attaching thereto shall remain the sole property of CARNECTED, Thinkware or the respective manufacturer or provider, as the case may be. Nothing in this Agreement will result in or will be construed as a transfer of any such Intellectual Property Rights to Customer.

11.2 For the avoidance of doubt, no licences, rights or other permissions are being granted to Customer for the use of any CARNECTED Marks in any manner.   


12. PDPA

12.1 CARNECTED may receive Personal Data in entering into and carrying out its obligations under this Agreement. Customer consents to CARNECTED collecting, using and disclosing his or her Personal Data for the following purposes:

12.1.1 Performing obligations in the course of or in connection with the provision of Equipment and Subscription Plans, including the administration of product warranty;

12.1.2 Processing payment or credit transactions from time to time under this Agreement;

12.1.3 Providing installation and other support for the Equipment and Subscription Plan;

12.1.4 Improving user experience in relation to the Equipment and Subscription Plan;

12.1.5 Transmitting to any unaffiliated third parties including our third party service and payment providers, agents, intermediaries and other organizations we have engaged to perform any of the functions, whether located in Singapore or abroad, under this Agreement; and

12.1.6 Such other purposes as may be notified to Customer from time to time.

12.2 In the event that Customer provides Personal Data of other individuals under this Agreement, Customer shall ensure that he or she has obtained the necessary consent of the relevant individual about whom such Personal Data relates in respect of the purposes set out in Clause 12.1 for CARNECTED to comply with the Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (No. 26 of 2012).

12.3 Customer acknowledges that he or she has read and agrees to CARNECTED’s Personal Data Protection Policy available at https://thinkware.com.sg/pages/pdpa and updated from time to time at the sole discretion of CARNECTED. 

13. MISCELLANEOUS

13.1 Assignment

13.1.1 Customer must not assign or attempt to assign or otherwise transfer the Subscription Plan or any right or obligation arising out of this Agreement, without the written consent of CARNECTED.

13.1.2 CARNECTED may, in its discretion, assign any of its rights or transfer any of its obligations arising out of this Agreement by giving notice to Customer. 

13.2 Interpretation and Invalidity

Whenever possible, each provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted in such a manner as to be valid and effective. If any provision or part thereof of this Agreement is deemed invalid and/or unenforceable, the remaining provisions shall remain valid and enforceable, and this Agreement shall be given effect as if the invalid, illegal or unenforceable provision or part thereof had been deleted and removed from the Agreement. 

13.2 Interpretation and Invalidity

Whenever possible, each provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted in such a manner as to be valid and effective. If any provision or part thereof of this Agreement is deemed invalid and/or unenforceable, the remaining provisions shall remain valid and enforceable, and this Agreement shall be given effect as if the invalid, illegal or unenforceable provision or part thereof had been deleted and removed from the Agreement. 

13.3 Waiver

The waiver by either Party of a breach or default of any of the provisions of this Agreement by the other Party shall not be construed as a waiver of a preceding or subsequent breach or default of the same or other provisions nor shall any delay or omission on the part of either Party to exercise or avail itself of any right or power or privilege that it has or may have hereunder operate as a waiver of any breach or default by the other Party. A purported waiver or release under this Agreement is not effective unless it is a specifically authorized written waiver or release.

13.4 Force Majeure

Neither Party shall be liable for any failure to perform its obligations under this Agreement if the failure results from events beyond the reasonable control of either Party. For the purpose of this Agreement, such events shall include, without limitation, strikes, lockouts or other labour disputes, riots, civil disturbances, action or inaction of governmental authorities, epidemics, wars, acts of terrorism, embargoes, Acts of God or other catastrophes.

13.5 Entire Agreement

This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the Parties as to its subject matter, and in relation to that subject matter, supersedes all previous agreements, arrangements and representations between the Parties in relation to that subject matter.

13.6 Rights of Third parties

Any person or entity who is not a party to this Agreement, whether or not any benefit is conferred or purported to be conferred on him directly or indirectly, has no rights under the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act (Cap. 53B) to enforce any term or condition of this Agreement.

13.7 Governing Law and Dispute Resolution

This Agreement is governed by and shall be construed in accordance with the laws of Singapore, and the Parties hereby submit to the jurisdiction of the courts in the Republic of Singapore.